Essay On Artificial Satellites And Their Types
Artificial satellites are the most common kind of spacecraft that stay in space for many months or even for many years.
Satellites are used for different purpose like communication, observing the atmosphere from space and for defence or for military actions. The shape of a satellite can differ depending on the job it has to perform. Satellites can carry all kinds of equipment such as telescope, cameras and others necessary things.
The first artificial satellite to be launched into space was Sputnik – I by Russia. A month later Sputnik – II was launched with a dog called ‘Laika’. Laika became the first living creature to travel in space. It remained in orbit for seven days.
Communication satellite, environmental satellite and military satellite are the three kinds of satellites. Communication satellites are used to relay television signals, transmit telephone, telex and computer data. In 1962, America launched the first communication satellite Telstar’. This satellite relayed television pictures across the Atlantic Ocean. Soon International Tell Communication Satellites Organization was set up to provide universal communications. Today, more than 100 member nations own and operate the world’s largest commercial communication satellites belonging to Intelsat.
Environmental satellites are used for various purposes such as monitoring the weather, temperature of land and sea or determining the speed of ocean currents or winds. They are also useful to locate and determine minerals on land and the areas of high pollution. They are also used to monitor deforested areas. Environmental satellites are fitted with many different types of instruments so that images are sent back to the Earth. Some of them also have instruments that can identify chemicals in the atmosphere and monitor the greenhouse effect. In 1960s, USA launched Turos – I as the first weather satellite.
The primary use of military satellites is to monitor the enemy territory. Photographs can be taken of the enemy territory and targets can be decided that are to be attacked in future. Such satellites are used for dropping on radio communication of the enemy. Military satellites can also monitor enemy launch sites from where missiles are sent up. Thus, early warning of a missile attack can be given. The head of the country can connect with the Chief of the troop on the battlefield through such satellites. Modern spy satellites can electronically scan the ground from orbit and images can be transmitted to the Earth.
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