Essay On Cottage Industry
Ancient India was famous for her cottage industries. Dacca Muslin is famous even to this day. It was not only the pride of the small traders in the Muslim period of Indian history but it was a self-sufficient unit. Every need of the inhabitants was met by local production and the question of unemployment was almost absent.
Causes of Downfall: As the machines replaced men and the big industries took the place of cottage industries, men were thrown out of employment. Though machine-made goods are cheaper and finer, yet this change over from cottage industries has troubled the government very much. The village weavers, the carpenters etc. become out of a job and hence increased the pressure on agriculture.
Policy of the English: With the advent of the British empire in India, the cottage industry suffered heavily. Indigenous industries suffered and lost ground due to heavy competition from the foreign machine-made goods. The British government’s policy to give concessions and preference to English goods was the cause of the decline of cottage industries.
There are innumerable advantages attached to this sort of economy. Cottage industries provide a second employment or part time job to the agriculturists. A small capital and not very high technical knowledge required by this industry, can be easily provided by the farms or co-operative societies.
Realising the need, government of India has adopted the swadeshi policy. Indigenous and small scale industries are protected, patronised and given aid where necessary. In order to uplift the home industries, more and more indigenous goods are being used by the government. Department facilities for the purchase of raw materials and sale of finished products are also provided.
At present, India needs more cottage industries to improve her economic conditions. is said that it is the chief remedy for economic troubles. Heavy industries require a huge capital and high technical knowledge and expertise, which India lacks at present. Our land is full of villages where cottage industries, requiring a small capital and less technical knowledge, can easily thrive. Smithy, carpentry, poultry farming, weaving are the most popular industries in our villages.
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