Essay On Genetic Engineering
Genetic engineering is a term applied to laboratory techniques for the genes of an organism. A gene is a cell that controls a particular quality of leaving thing that has been passed from its parents. Genetic engineering is a science of removing, adding or replacing genetic unit to achieve permanent and hereditary changes in animals and plants. Gene surgery, manipulation, transplantation, therapy and intervention are the terms used with genetic engineering Some of its practical explanation has been in the field of medicine, industry, reproduction and agriculture.
In the field of medicine, genetic engineering has made possible the manufacturing of proteins like insulin that has immense medical importance. A group of scientists in America has created an artificial gene that has an ability to produce human insulin. Insulin is of great use to patients suffering from diabetes. Genetic engineering is also used to produce proteins called “interferon’. These proteins are produced by the human body in response to viral infection. Scientists use gene therapy to treat genetic effects. In this therapy, bad or nonfunctional genes are replaced with good genes. Once such new genes are replaced, they take over the task of producing the proteins.
A second type of application in the genetic engineering is in the field of reproduction. The child receives atleast half of its genes from a biological mother. The technique involves collection of sperms that does not show any hereditary effects from fertile donors. Such sperm can be used to bring about fertilization in a normal woman whose husband cannot father a child.
Another application is a test tube baby. The world’s first test tube baby named ‘Luis Joy Brown’ was conceived in a laboratory. Scientists Patric Steptoe and Robert Edward worked for ten years to perfect the technique called ‘fertilizing human ova outside the human body.’
a Another application is cloning. is cloning. It is controversial application. Reproduction involving only a single pair is called “cloning’. It is sexual form of reproduction where both male and female contribute to the genetic donation of the offspring. The possibility of cloning human beings is no longer impossible.
In the field of industry, genetic engineering microbes have been used to improve the efficiency of the production of food. Genetic engineering is also been used in controlling the population. Researches have been conducted to develop microorganism that chemically break down garbage and other wastes into natural gas.
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