Essay On Acid Rain
The rain that contains harmful chemicals and gases emitting from industrialized areas is known as acid rain. The rainfall having a pH level less than 5.6 results in acid rain. On the pH scale of zero to fourteen, a reading below seven shows existence of acid in a solution and above seven shows existence of alkali in the solution. This type of rain can lead to extensive damage to the environment, trees, crops, buildings and property. It can even destroy mountains.
Factories in big cities produce nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide gases. As rain falls, these gases mix in the rainwater forming nitrous acid and sulphuric acid. With the rainwater, these acids fall on the ground. Acid rain leads to the corrosion of buildings and statues by reacting with other minerals. It also causes yellow patches on marble. When water vapour in the atmosphere combines with oxides of sulphite and nitrogen, sulphuric and nitric acids are formed. This results in the formation of acid rain.
Nitrogen oxide is also responsible for acid rain. Gases like nitrogen dioxide and nitrogen monoxide, which are the oxides of nitrogen, are obtained from the by-products of eruption processes of extreme high temperatures. Such processes take place in chemical industries especially where fertilizers are manufactured. Release of nitrogen oxide takes place through volcanic erosion, forest fires and lightening.
Acid rain can affect the environment adversely. Such rain mixing in water bodies makes the water acidic. Such water becomes unsuitable for aquatic life. Slowly mucus is developed in the gills of fishes. This stops them from absorbing fresh oxygen from the surrounding waters. As a result they die. Acid rain can even harm us through the atmosphere or through the soil from where we get food crops. Harmless metals become harmful as acid rain causes poisonous metals to loose from their normal chemical mixtures. Moreover, respiratory problems occur among humans. Irritation of eyes, nose and throat, asthma, dry caught, headaches are some of the problems faced by humans.
In order to avoid acid rain, the use of fossil fuels must be controlled. Fossil fuel contains nitrogen and sulphur compounds. Production of sulphur dioxide from the industrial plants can be minimized by using appropriate technology. There should be more and more use of solar energy, wind energy and water energy as alternative power sources. These power sources are pollution free and does not cause any harm to the environment.
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