Set 1: Essay On Air pollution
Much of the air we breathe is polluted and at times it may smell unpleasant. Pollution can cause irritation in the throat and nose. Lengthy exposure to certain types of pollution may cause serious disorders.
Cigarette smoke can pollute air at home and at the place of work. Scientists have shown that cigarette smoke is not only damaging to the health of the people who smoke but also to the health of non-smokers who breathe in other people’s cigarette smoke.
Is the air we breathe in, fresh at school? It all depends on the immediate surrounding of the school. The air in an open countryside is comparatively fresh and clean. Fresh air contains oxygen which we need to live. The air over towns and cities where there are lots of factories, industries and vehicles, contains many harmful substance and poisonous gases thus polluting the air a lot.
One of the main causes of pollution of air is road traffic. When petrol or diesel oil burns, it produces a number of chemicals. One is nitrogen dioxide, another is carbon monoxide a very poisonous gas. Scientists believe that the exhaust fumes of vehicles can cause cancer and other illness. Until a few years ago, lead was added to most petrol to make the vehicle run smoother. The lead passed through the exhaust system into the air. Lead is poisonous.
Breathing in lead polluted air over a long period can cause brain damage. Fortunately most countries have now banned the use of leaded petrol. Every form of pollution in fact, is a result of man’s doing and they can all be avoided should man become sensible enough to desire so.
Set 2: Essay On Sources Effects And Control Of Air Pollution
The World Health Organization has defined air pollution as, “the presence of materials in the air in such concentration which are harmful to man and his environment.” Air pollution is the addition of foreign particles, gases and other pollutants into the air. They produce adverse effect on human beings, animals, vegetation, buildings, etc.
Some of the important sources of air pollution are burning of natural gas, petroleum, coal and wood in industries, thermal plants, automobiles, aircrafts, railways, agricultural burning, kitchens, etc. Chemical industries like pesticides and fertilizers are other important sources of contaminating the air. Processing industries like wheat flourmills, stone crushing, welding, cotton textiles and gem grinding also contribute to air pollution.
Natural air pollutants include poisonous gas, gases released during volcanic eruption and mixture of harmful chemicals during storms. The major cause of pollution in the urban areas is the release of air pollutants due to burning of petroleum in automobiles. Concentration of industries in one area is another major cause of air pollution.
The air pollutants have adverse effect on human beings, animals, vegetation and even buildings. The climate of the Earth is changing due to it. Dust and smoke particles in air cause irritation of the respiratory tract and leads to asthma, bronchitis and lung diseases. Incomplete combustion of carbon fuels in several industries, motor vehicles, kitchens, etc. releases carbon monoxide gas. When this gas combines with certain substances in blood, it harms the oxygen carrying capacity of blood making it fatal.
When petroleum and coal are burnt in industries, thermal plants and motor vehicles, a poisonous gas called sulphur dioxide is produced. When it mixes with the rainwater, it forms sulphurous acid resulting into acid rain. Such rain leads to staining and corrosion of buildings, painted surfaces, sculptures, fabrics, paper, leather, etc.
Due to excessive combustion activity, the quantity of carbon dioxide in air has been steadily rising. As carbon dioxide accumulates in the atmosphere it absorbs more and more reflected infrared radiation. This causes an increase in the atmospheric temperature. Melting polar ice caps and glaciers could cause sea levels to rise, flooding most of the major human settlements.
By taking certain measures, air pollution can be controlled. Industrial estates should be established at a distance from residential areas. Very tall chimneys must be used by industries and factories to reduce the air pollution in the surrounding areas, Poisonous gases must be removed by passing them through water tower scrubberor spray collector.
High temperature furnaces must be used for decrease in ash production. There should be development and employment of non-combustive sources of energy such as solar power, tidal power, wind power, etc. Attempt should be made to manufacture automobiles that are completely pollution free. Automobiles should be fitted with exhaust emission controls. Industrial plants and refineries should be fitted with equipment for removal and recycling of wastes.
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