Essay On League Of Nations – Aims And Reasons For Failure
The First World War from 1914 to 1918 was distractive as it caused severe loss of life and property. After the war ended in 1918, world leaders decided that such a war should not take place again. They wanted to prevent the outbreak of another war in future.
The establishment of League of Nations was the idea of American President Woodrow Wilson. He went to Paris Peace Conference after the First World War with his 14 points. Establishing League of Nations was one of the 14 points. His idea was accepted by all the countries and the League was established in January 1920.
League of Nations had certain important aims to fulfil. Preventing the outbreak of war and resolving the conflict between the countries through peaceful means was the main aim of the League. It also aimed to reduce the production of arms and armaments by different countries. It worked hard to promote international co-operation during the times of difficulties. League of Nations allowed any country to become its member or decline from the League. However, the country had to give a notice to the League before two years. The League had the power to expel any country if that country broke any rule set by the League.
The League of Nations performed its different functions through its five organs. These organs were Assembly, Council, Secretariat, International Labour Organization and Permanent Court of International Justice. The permanent members of the League were USA, France, Britain, Japan and Italy. Later Russia and Germany joined the League. Japan and Russia came out of the League as they started following the policy of war. Thus, slowly the organ became ineffective. League failed to maintain world peace, resulting into Second World War. This was the first experiment made by man in maintaining world peace by international co-operation.
There were important causes for the failure of the League. USA did not join the League as it followed the policy of isolation. USA decided not to interfere in the world matters. The absence of USA affected League’s working badly. Moreover, League failed to control race for armaments. Despite of all the efforts, countries started to produce more and more armaments. League had no international army of its own to check the countries where war was going on. It only appealed other countries to help country that was being attacked.
Rise of dictatorship led to the failure of League. After the First World War, dictatorship came into existence in countries like Italy, Spain, Russia, Japan and Germany. The policy of military dictators was the policy of war while League followed the policy of peace. Thus, conflict occurred between them in which League failed to control the dictators, resulting into its failure.
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