Essay On Indus Valley Its Town Planning And Civil Life
Indus Valley civilization dates back to 2500 BC. However, scholars do not know how this civilization began. Indus Valley civilization is also known as Harappan Culture? Scientific and archaeological proofs show the level of scientific and technical achievements of the early civilization. The historical excavations in 1920 of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro show the developed state of civilization of the people in this region. However, the glorious civilization that gave so many things ended by 1500 BC.
The existing ruins of the Indus Valley show remarkable skills of town planning. The streets were 9 to 35 feet wide. The roads ran straight for about half a mile. The main roads were intersected at right angles dividing the cities into squares or rectangular blocks. These blocks were further divided lengthwise and crosswise by a number of lanes. Almost every lane had a public well and a lamp post at regular intervals.
Mohenjo-Daro had an elaborate drainage system. It ran under all the main streets. Drainage systems were covered with loose stones, which could be removed for cleaning. This drainage system is considered as the most complete ancient system so far discovered.
Each house had a private well of its own and a public wells between the two houses. Most of their wells even today are in perfect working condition. This shows the technical skills and perfection of the builders. There were multi-storeyed houses. They were built of burnt bricks. Sun dried bricks were used to lay the foundation of houses. Roofs of the houses were flat and made of wood. The rooms were arranged around as open courtyard. This was a special feature of the house planning. Large houses had two or more floors, narrow staircase, courtyard and doorways. Some of the houses had upper floor with vertical drainpipes with a bathroom.
Among the large buildings, there were two outstanding structures. They were the Great Bath and the Great Granary. The Great Bath was a remarkable discovery at Mohenjo-Daro. It was 180 feet long and 108 feet wide. In center, there was a large swimming or bath enclosure. It measured 39 feet long, 23 feet wide and 8 feet deep. Water was filled into it by a well situated in one of the adjoining rooms. The water was discharged by the drains. The solidity of this construction is proved by the fact that it has withstand since 5000 years.
The Great Granary was the largest building at Harappa. It measured 169 feet in length and 136 feet in breadth. The building was divided into blocks with 23 feet wide passages, between them. Each block had six halls with five corridors between them. Harappa and a few other cities of Indus Valley had strong fortifications.
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