Essay On Causes And Effects Of Deforestation
Forests are important treasure of a country. They are valuable source of different kinds of commodities like wood, fuel, fodder, timber and herbal drugs. Forests also provide several raw materials useful for various industries. They provide shelter to different animals and birds. Forests help in maintaining the environmental balance. As the uses of forests are increasing, even the threat to their existence is increasing day-by-day. This problem is known as the problem of deforestation
Deforestation results in environmental imbalance and several other related problems. The rate of deforestation is higher in many countries. In the beginning of the 19th century, large-scale disturbances of forest area were started by humans. The rising population in tropical countries resulted in destruction of the forests, as the only source for further extinction of land.
The major cause of deforestation is excessive farming in countries of Asia and Africa. The lack of economic means, unemployment, poverty and unequal distribution of land forces landless farmers to invade forests. Shifting cultivation is another important cause that has contributed to deforestation. Extracting bamboo, commercial tree farming and planting eucalyptus for the paper industry has resulted in cutting more and more trees.
Continuous increase in world population and rising demand for timber are also responsible to put increasing amount of pressure on the world’s forests. It is believed that within a few decades there will be considerable loss of the forest areas and their quality. It is estimated that if rapid deforestation continues than the area under tropical forests will drop down as low as 500 to 800 million hectors by 2050. In other words, only 30% of existing forests will survive.
Forests are globally important. They play an important role in maintaining the ecosystem of our planet. They protect the soil from being washed or blown away by the rain. Thus, their existance reduces errosion of soil. Various useful chemical products that are essential for making medicine originate in the plants of tropical forests. More than 50% of modern medicines are mainly from tropical forests. The forests absorb the solar energy that would otherwise be reflected back into the atmosphere. Through the process of photosynthesis in green plants, carbon dioxide is taken in from the atmosphere. Plants turn carbon dioxide and water into food using energy obtained from the light of the sun.
With the higher rate of deforestation, there will be increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. This will contribute to greenhouse effect. Deforestation also reduces rainfall.
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